Structures basés biopolymères pour la reconstruction de tissus biologiques

par Cristinel-Nicolae Degeratu

Thèse de doctorat en Biomolécules, pharmacologie, thérapeuthique

Sous la direction de Corneliu Cincu.

Thèses en préparation à Angers en cotutelle avec l'Université de Bucarest (Roumanie) , dans le cadre de École doctorale Biologie-Santé Nantes-Angers depuis le 18-03-2011 .

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  • Résumé

    The thesis entitled Biopolymer based structures for biological tissue reconstruction, structured in four chapters, aims to present the possibility of obtaining biopolymeric structures that can be used in tissue reconstruction, especially bone tissue reconstruction. The following specific objectives were defined and followed in Chapters 2, 3 and 4: 1) Obtaining structures based on PHA and natural fibers, for medical purposes - films; fibers; blocks or other types of compact and/or porous structures; 2) Physical or chemical modification of the obtained structures to improve their biocompatibility properties; 3) Biological characterization of the materials in vitro and in vivo; 4) Study on the influence of metals on the mineralization of bone tissue. Chapter I gives an overview of the biomaterials used in tissue engineering based on literature. Chapter II presents the various biopolymer-based structures: films; microparticles; fibers; tubes and microporous structures. It includes the assessment of physical, chemical and mechanical properties of PHA and natural fibers and a study on porosity using microCT. Chapter III discusses the influence of porosity on cell adhesion of polyhydroxyalkanoates films, a study on in-vitro and in-vivo behavior of PHBV fibers. The final part includes the results of a study concerning the modification of fibroin fibers and cellulose fibers with synthetic polymers, with the aim to enhance mineralization. Chapter IV addresses the influence of aluminum on bone mineralization. This study was motivated by the alarming findings on the harmful effects of aluminum on bone mineralization. The thesis ends with concluding remarks and perspectives.