Gendarmes et policiers, coacteurs de la sécurité publique sous la Troisième République (1870-1914)

by Laurent Lopez

Doctoral thesis in Histoire

Under the supervision of Jean-Noël Luc.

defended on 26-06-2012

in Paris 4 , under the authority of École doctorale Histoire moderne et contemporaine (Paris) , in a partnership with Centre d'histoire du XIXe siècle (Paris) (équipe de recherche) .

Thesis committee President: Frédéric Chauvaud.

Thesis committee members: Jean-Marc Berlière, René Lévy, Xavier Rousseaux, Olivier Forcade.

  • Alternative Title

    There was no such thing as rivalry between police forces. Gendarmes and policemen in terms of public policing during The French Third Republic (1870-1914)


  • Abstract

    This doctoral thesis aims at studying the professional relationships established between the police forces and the gendarmes in terms of both judicial police and law enforcement during the 1870-1914 period in France, including the Paris area.The relationships at stake relate to the Sûreté Générale officers-special railway police and judicial police mobile squads as well as municipal police-officers especially those from the Paris Prefecture de Police (main areas police headquarters), with the Department brigade gendarmes, including those of the Seine company, and also the Republican Guard.Understanding this relationship, in terms of both complementing and opposing, may only result from putting in perspective the social profiles of the gendarmes and police-officers we have focused on, so as to try to single out the individual elements that may influence their professional relationships. Describing the different ways the police-officers and gendarmes worked impels us to go back to the ways those two institutions perceived each other during various periods. Taking into account the way gendarmes perceived police-officers, and vice versa, enables one to explain why the relationship established in the field either succeeded or failed, as far as judicial policing or law enforcement were concerned. The information relating to the way they pictured one another mainly comes from the reading of memoirs written by some police-officers as well as pamphlets written by some gendarmes as expressed in their respective presses.


  • Abstract

    Cette thèse vise à étudier les rapports professionnels noués par les policiers et les gendarmes en matière de police judiciaire et de maintien de l'ordre durant la période 1870-1914, dans l’ensemble de la France, y compris le département de la Seine. Les relations envisagées concernent donc les policiers de la Sûreté générale – police spéciale des chemins de fer et brigades mobiles de police judiciaire, ainsi que les policiers municipaux – notamment ceux de la préfecture de police à Paris – avec les gendarmes des brigades départementales – dont ceux de la compagnie de la Seine – ainsi que les gardes républicains.La compréhension de ces relations, en termes de complémentarité ou de rivalité, passe par la mise en perspective des profils sociaux des gendarmes et des policiers observés pour tenter d’analyser les éléments individuels qui peuvent influencer leurs rapports professionnels. La description des pratiques entre policiers et gendarmes implique de remonter aux représentations mutuelles traversant leurs institutions respectives. Les images des gendarmes sur la police et les policiers, et réciproquement, doivent permettre d’apporter des éléments d’explication de la coopération réussie ou, au contraire, de l’échec des collaborations nouées sur le terrain en matière de police judiciaire ou de maintien de l'ordre. Ces représentations sont, notamment, tirées de la lecture des policiers mémorialistes ou des gendarmes pamphlétaires s’exprimant dans leurs presses corporatives respectives.


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