Rôle de la Confédération syndicale allemande (le DGB) et du patronat allemand (la BDA) dans l'immigration du travail en Allemagne depuis les années 1950

par Cyrine Hamida

Projet de thèse en Sociologie

Sous la direction de Jacques Barou.

Thèses en préparation à Grenoble Alpes , dans le cadre de École doctorale sciences de l'homme, du politique et du territoire (Grenoble) , en partenariat avec PACTE - Politiques publiques, ACtions politiques et TerritoirEs (laboratoire) et de Territoires (equipe de recherche) depuis le 01-10-2009 .


  • Résumé

    Les politiques de l'immigration du travail en Allemagne sont ancrées dans une stratégie politico-économique dont l'objectif est le recours aux forces de travail étrangères en fonction des besoins et des demandes du marché du travail. La spécificité de l'Allemagne réside sur la concertation sociale et la recherche d'un consensus entre les acteurs économiques (syndicats/patronats) et l'Etat (Ministères rattachés) dans la gestion des politiques migratoires. Dans le cadre de cette recherche, il est question d'une analyse historique, économique et politique de l'évolution des migrations de main-d'œuvre à partir de trois grandes phases. Il s'agit de la période de l'immigration des travailleurs invités peu qualifiés pour le secteur de l'industrie de 1955 à 1973, de l'immigration des travailleurs des pays de l'Est dans le cadre de contrats temporaires pour le secteur de la construction en 1990 et enfin celle des travailleurs hautement qualifiés pour le secteur des technologies de l'information et de la communication en 2000 avec la réglementation de la « Greencard ». Dans cette perspective d'analyse, nous mettons en évidence, la position et le rôle de la Confédération des syndicats allemands (le DGB) et de la Confédération du patronat allemand (la BDA) dans la régulation des flux de main-d'œuvre et dans la politique migratoire globale tout en rappelant la conjoncture économique et sociale de ces périodes. Nous identifions ainsi les caractéristiques de la politique de l'immigration du travail du point de vue des partenaires sociaux allemands et l'évolution de celle-ci dans des phases de conjoncture difficile. Dans le contexte de la mondialisation depuis les années 1990, le rôle des acteurs économiques dans le processus des politiques de décision pourrait être alors remis en question... In the end of the Second World War, Germany has to rebuild all its infrastructures: production process is entirely disorganized and cannot be used as such. However with the first oil outbreak in 1973, Germany witnesses a period of economic growth.Successive German governments from 1955 to 1973 choose immigration policies based on social dynamic and economic demands. They call for a foreign workforce to respond to the demands of a growing economy. The outcome is then an important wave of foreign workers coming from southern Europe to Germany. German authorities wish then to regulate this wave according to the economic rationale, that is to say based on the demand and needs of the job market. They wish to set up a new principle according to which foreign workers would be present in Germany for a limited period of time in order for them to return to their nature country in the end of their contract. In the framework of my thesis and in the context of immigration policies, I have studied the role of German trade unions and employers as decision-makers in the labour immigration. I have thought about the way corporations and trade unions have influenced this immigration policy from 1955 to 2000.In other words, even though immigration is determined by a public policy, it is an answer to the economic rationale. In fact labour immigration would be the product of dialectic between the state and corporations. We will have to evaluate the impact of economic policy immigration regulations in Germany. Interviews with economic actors, analyses of monographies as well as viewpoints and discourses of the main protagonists will enable us to realize what is actually at stake on a politically level and what the ambitions of each actor are in the process of immigration policy. To understand the policy of labour immigration, I will analyse the role of employers and trade Unions and how they interact with each other. German trade Unions have developed measures in favour of the integration of the foreign workforce: such as trainings and integration sessions in the corporation, egalitarian measures for both natives and foreigners and family based immigration. They have been essential in building up a strong and successful relationship between native employers and foreign workers. As for employers, they were more interested in the needs of the economy than in problems linked to the labour immigration. Nonetheless, it seems that the role of employers and trade unions has diminished because of the economic crisis, restructuration of the labour market, opening of the European market and consequently, it remains to study the role of the economic partners in the policy of immigration policy of labour. The needs for a workforce have evolved since 1955 - a situation to wish economic actors have to adapt because more and more very qualified and competent foreign workers have recently come to Europe - and this questions the competency of the economic actors on a broader scale.It's very interesting and new to study the role of German employers and trade unions as decision-makers and economic players in the migration of labour. Further thoughts will be given to the way in which German companies and trade unions have influenced national immigration policies from the 1950s throughout the 1970s. In other words even though immigration is in the first place determined by public policies, it is also the result of an economic rationale that is dictated by companies' workforce needs. As a consequence, labour migration is the product of a dynamic between the State and companies. In fact, we will ‘measure' the capacity of German policies to handle labour migration.

  • Titre traduit

    Role of German trade unions and employers as decision-makers in the labour immigration in Germany since 1950


  • Résumé

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