par Bahar Salavati

Projet de thèse en Sciences et Techniques de l'Environnement

Sous la direction de Daniel Schertzer.

Thèses en préparation à Paris Est , dans le cadre de SIE - Sciences, Ingénierie et Environnement , en partenariat avec LEESU - Laboratoire Eau Environnement et Systèmes Urbain (laboratoire) et de Equipe SIE (equipe de recherche) depuis le 01-10-2011 .

  • Résumé

    Managing water in urban areas has become a major concern due to increase of (peri-)urban population, continuous increase of pollution and increased exposure to climatic changes. In managing stormwater and wastewater and integrating the management train within urban green assets there exists a variety of modelling and planning tools that also remain very fragmented and still require deeper understanding of the multi-scale dynamics and interactions of urban water cycle processes. In urban modelling there are several software packages in public domain, like TREX to simulate the surface processes, SWMM to simulate the drainage and VS2DT to simulate the sub-surface processes. However there are significant gaps such as the integration of SUDS and FR elements, infiltration and interaction with urban ground water infrastructure, are just a few areas which should be further improved. With this prospective, Multi-Hydro has been developed at Leesu, to act as a catalyser in identifying gaps in exiting analytical and modelling tools, developing gluing routines that enable modelling of interactions of urban water systems' components for the “next generation of urban water systems'. Multi-Hydro is currently implemented at 10 m resolution on several case-study watersheds in Paris area. The input/output data of Multi-Hydro are in GIS format. Ongoing work demonstrated that hydrological responses to rainfall strongly depend on local characteristics of soil, such as water storage capacity and infiltration rates. The type and density of vegetation cover and land-use characteristics are also important to understand hydrologic response to rainfall. The goal of this PhD thesis is to increase knowledge on infiltration as one of hydrological aspect that influenced by land use change becomes an essential aspect to be considered in the (peri-)urban planning development. The measurement of the infiltration process and quantification of its spatial variability is difficult mainly due to inherent differences with the measurement methods and the scales at which they are applied. The PhD fellow will develop an effective method for estimating the distribution of the infiltration zones based on spatial analysis using Multi-Hydro and GIS technology. This will help to reveal linkage between infiltrations measured at the point or plot scales and the infiltration and runoff processes at watershed scale. Specific tasks are to: • perform literature review; • perform point scale infiltration measurements for selected types of land use within the case-study watersheds; • investigate the interactions between land-use type and infiltration measurements; • develop a schematisation procedure taking into account spatial differences in infiltration and land use; • develop an effective method for estimating the distribution of the infiltration zones based on spatial analysis using GIS technology; • use Multi-Hydro to quantify the effects of the spatial variability of infiltration rates on computed runoffs; • explore promising use of infiltration zone mapping for the (peri-)urban planning development.

  • Titre traduit


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