Projet de thèse en Sciences de gestion spécialité Prospective, innovation, stratégie, organisation
Sous la direction de Christophe Estay.
Thèses en préparation à Paris, CNAM , dans le cadre de École doctorale Abbé Grégoire (Paris) , en partenariat avec Laboratoire interdisciplinaire de recherche en sciences de l'action (Paris) (laboratoire) depuis le 01-09-2017 .
Performance Efficiency of Sustainable Practices in French Wine sector Using Data Envelopment Analysis
The use of the word performance is often linked automatically to the word economic, and the classic definition of economic performance refers to an assessment for an organization of its success in areas related to its assets, liabilities and overall market strength. There exist different indexes and indicators used to measure the general economic performance of a company. The vast majority of studies on performance are focused on economic performance and do not consider neither social nor environments parameters. However, we witness nowadays the wide spread notion of sustainability and the international efforts directed towards combating climate change and unleashing actions and investment towards a low carbon, resilient and sustainable future. Therefore, organizations became increasingly concerned about their organizations' environmental performance and the impact of their activities on the environment. Different studies have shown that ignoring undesirable outputs such as carbon emission or waste product may produce misleading results in assessing the performance efficiency ( [F¨are et al., 1989], [Lovell et al., 1995]). Wine industry as well as other industries are not innocent from contributing to climate change and global warming due to the existence of different activities such as vineyard practices, packaging, transportation, fermentation and energy consumption that result in carbon emissions and waste production. Although there are no taxes on carbon emissions in the wine sector for the moment, it is extremely important to assess the performance of decision making units by accounting for environmental factors. In assessing performance, it is reasonable to give credit to decision making units (DMUs)for producing desirable outputs but at the same time we should penalize them for producing undesirable outputs that cause environmental damage. The main research ideas that we would like to propose is to compare the overall performance in terms of technical, economic and allocative efficiency of wineries in the presence and absence of environmental factors. The methodology proposed in this study is Data Envelopment Analysis ( [Charnes et al., 1978], [Banker et al., 1984]). Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is a linear programming methodology that measures the relative efficiency of multiple DMUs performing homogeneous tasks. The main characteristics of DEA are: the ability to incorporate multiple inputs and outputs, in which it doesn't assume any particular shape for the production frontier (non-parametric method); it identifies the most efficient and the inefficient units in which improvements can be done; and it is a linear programming model which is considered easy to handle using multiple available software. Within such framework, we could investigate the possibilities of improving the unified performance i.e. operational and environmental performance. The global idea of this research are summarized in the following three stages. First stage: We would like to examine the economic efficiency of the French wine regions taking into consideration for example the inputs i.e resources used such as surface area and labor to produce wine that is sold within Europe and outside Europe. Within such framework, we could examine the efficient regions and try to explain their efficiency related to the market and pricing strategies practiced in each region. In addition, having panel data would help to explore productivity change over time and to identify the main contributors of inefficiency whether they are related to technical or allocative factors. Second stage: We would like to build a carbon footprint model that allows to estimate the carbon emissions in each region. The model will account for fermentation, packaging and transportation to investigate the carbon emissions in each region. In this stage, we could explore the impact of incorporating carbon footprint on the overall performance of the wine regions. Third stage: In this stage, we would like to move from the macro-level perspective to the microlevel one. This transition will help us to investigate and explore drivers of efficiency in a more detailed way. This could be explained by the fact that there is more data on the micro-level concerning all inputs used by the farms such as energy consumption, amounts of fertilizers and pesticides used, type of packaging etc. Furthermore, in this stage we would be able address managerial implications that could help to improve efficiency from operational and environmental side. The general research questions addressed by this research, based on producers' side, are summarized as follow: - How can we assess the performance and environmental efficiency in a unified measure on regional and firm level? - What are the most activities that contribute to carbon equivalent emissions (e.g. vineyard practices, packaging, transportation etc.)? - How innovations in wine sector could contribute into the resolution of sustainability puzzle? - What sustainable practices could be addressed to help in reducing carbon emissions in the wine sector? - What effective changes could the wine industry actors bring to build a greener wine industry? Keywords: Wine, Economic efficiency, Sustainability, Data Envelopment Analysis.