Propriétés quantiques des polaritons de cavité

par Nicola Carlon Zambon

Projet de thèse en Optique et photonique

Sous la direction de Jacqueline Bloch.

Thèses en préparation à Paris Saclay , dans le cadre de Ondes et Matière , en partenariat avec Centre de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies (laboratoire) , GOSS (equipe de recherche) et de Université Paris-Sud (établissement de préparation de la thèse) depuis le 01-11-2016 .


  • Résumé

    Semiconductor microcavities are an extraordinary nonlinear optical platform to study interacting photon fluids. Cavity polaritons are light-matter mixed particles resulting from the strong coupling between quantum well excitons and the optical mode of a cavity. Polaritons obey bosonic statistics and can massively occupy a single quantum state, allowing for bosonic condensation. Thanks to the polariton-polariton interactions arising from their excitonic component, polariton condensates present fascinating nonlinear properties like superfluidity, the nucleation of solitons and vortices or multistability. However, up to know, these properties have been mostly investigated in the mean field regime, when the number of polaritons involved in the nonlinear processes is very large. In this PhD thesis we propose to study microcavity polaritons at the single polariton level, where their bosonic quantum nature is expected to give rise to new quantum phenomena. Theoretical proposals in this regime predict the fermionisation of the polariton gas, the disappearance of bistability, the emission of squeezed light, single photon emission, or emission of large packets of photons (superbunching). Many of the above mentioned polariton quantum effects have been predicted to occur in low dimensional microcavities like those shown in the figure. Our group at Laboratory of Photonics and Nanostructures (LPN-CNRS) has recently developed a technique to implement such microstructures with state of the art optical quality. The PhD student will take advantage of these capabilities to fabricate coupled micropillar samples and study quantum effects using ultrafast photodiodes and a recently implemented streak camera technique that allows for the measurement of intensity correlations with an unprecedented time resolution. These PhD thesis will be performed in collaboration with several theoretical groups and in the context of a 2020 Horizon European project as well as the ERC Starting Grant Honeypol.

  • Titre traduit

    Quantum properties of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities


  • Résumé

    Semiconductor microcavities are an extraordinary nonlinear optical platform to study interacting photon fluids. Cavity polaritons are light-matter mixed particles resulting from the strong coupling between quantum well excitons and the optical mode of a cavity. Polaritons obey bosonic statistics and can massively occupy a single quantum state, allowing for bosonic condensation. Thanks to the polariton-polariton interactions arising from their excitonic component, polariton condensates present fascinating nonlinear properties like superfluidity, the nucleation of solitons and vortices or multistability. However, up to know, these properties have been mostly investigated in the mean field regime, when the number of polaritons involved in the nonlinear processes is very large. In this PhD thesis we propose to study microcavity polaritons at the single polariton level, where their bosonic quantum nature is expected to give rise to new quantum phenomena. Theoretical proposals in this regime predict the fermionisation of the polariton gas, the disappearance of bistability, the emission of squeezed light, single photon emission, or emission of large packets of photons (superbunching). Many of the above mentioned polariton quantum effects have been predicted to occur in low dimensional microcavities like those shown in the figure. Our group at Laboratory of Photonics and Nanostructures (LPN-CNRS) has recently developed a technique to implement such microstructures with state of the art optical quality. The PhD student will take advantage of these capabilities to fabricate coupled micropillar samples and study quantum effects using ultrafast photodiodes and a recently implemented streak camera technique that allows for the measurement of intensity correlations with an unprecedented time resolution. These PhD thesis will be performed in collaboration with several theoretical groups and in the context of a 2020 Horizon European project as well as the ERC Starting Grant Honeypol.