Mise en évidence des perturbations métaboliques liées à l'exposition aux toxiques présents dans l'environnement ou l'aliment par spectrométrie de masse à ultra haute résolution FTMS combinée avec des outils chimiométriques

par Baninia Habchi

Thèse de doctorat en Chimie analytique

Sous la direction de Estelle Paris.

Thèses en préparation à Paris Saclay , dans le cadre de Agriculture, Alimentation, Biologie, Environnement et Santé , en partenariat avec GENIAL - Ingénierie Procédés Aliments - UMR AGROPARISTECH/INRA (laboratoire) et de institut des sciences et industries du vivant et de l'environnement (AgroParisTech) (établissement opérateur d'inscription) .


  • Résumé

    The implementation of genomic selection makes possible the inclusion of new traits in breeding goals, by taking advantage of the opportunities coming from the increased genetic trend on traits currently under selection. Breeders, breeding companies and society all have changing expectations regarding genetic selection. Two groups of new traits were analyzed in the context of genetic improvement of dairy cattle: carcass traits of young bulls in dual-purpose breeds and claw health traits in Holstein, in order to prepare the implementation of genetic and genomic selection on these traits. For both sets of traits, suitable genetic evaluation models were developed and genetic parameters were estimated. Genetic parameters reveal that genetic selection of carcass traits of young bulls appears to be fairly easy and that selection of claw health traits is going to be more difficult, but possible, given the existing genetic variation. They also highlight that there is no strong negative genetic correlation between carcass traits of young bulls and dairy production traits. Finally, they reveal that there are two genetically distinct groups of claw health traits. Several strategies to account for non-exhaustive recording of cows for trimming were tested. Several evaluation approaches were compared. For both sets of traits, Single-Step Genomic BLUP was the most promising approach, although other (two-step) genomic approaches allowed for relatively similar accuracies and control of bias. These studies led to the implementation of routine genetic and genomic evaluations for both sets of traits, for which a usual two-step genomic approach was preferred over Single-Step Genomic BLUP for consistency with the current evaluation of other traits. However these two examples illustrate the benefit of implementing routine Single-Step Genomic BLUP evaluations. The main questions and principal steps identified in these studies were gathered into tentative guidelines for the development of genetic evaluations for new traits. d‘un grand nombre d‘échantillons biologiques pour mettre en évidence les perturbations métabolomiques induites par l‘exposition à des substances toxiques. Dans une première partie de ce travail, nous nous sommes intéressés à l‘étude d‘un petit groupe d‘agriculteurs ayant été exposés dans le cadre professionnel à deux pesticides. Une mise au point de l‘approche DIMS sur un instrument de type Orbitrap a été réalisée. Une procédure de traitement des données a aussi été développée. Elle est basée sur un nouvel outil dite IC-DA (independent component - discriminant analysis). Cette méthodologie a ensuite été appliquée sur un nombre d'échantillons plus élevé issus de cinq types d‘exposition. Dans cette étude, deux approches analytiques DIMS et LC/MS ont été examinées afin de valider l‘approche DIMS mais aussi l‘outil de traitement chimiométrique développé. Une deuxième partie est dédiée aux travaux visant à étendre l‘approche à haut débit sur un instrument de performances plus élevées, le FT-ICR (Fourier transform - ion cyclotron resonance) équipé d'une nouvelle cellule de piégeage dite ̎dynamically harmonized cell ̎. Une première étude a concerné l‘exposition des rats à différents concentration de pesticides. Dans une deuxième étape, une étude sur un nombre important d‘échantillon d‘urines humaines (d‘environ 500 individus) a été réalisée pour tester la robustesse de notre approche. Mes travaux ont permis de démontrer la faisabilité et l'efficacité de notre approche métabolomique à haut débit combinant l‘introduction directe DIMS, la détection à très haute résolution et les outils chimiométriques. Cette approche pourrait être très prometteuse pour réaliser le phénotypage métabolique à grande échelle, comme dans les études épidémiologiques.

  • Titre traduit

    Detection of metabolic disruptions induced by exposure to pollutants present in the environment or food using an FTMS instrument in combination with chemometric tools


  • Résumé

    Public health monitoring involves evaluation of population exposure to environmental toxicants which can have an impact on their health. To do this, robust and high-throughput approaches are required to perform large scale analyses. Global approaches such as metabolomics which aim to reveal metabolic changes due to environmental stress or diseases seem to be the most appropriate approach. This multidisciplinary approach requires powerful analytical techniques such as mass spectrometry (MS) associated with statistical and chemometric data processing. It allows to detect general metabolic disruptions induced by a given physiological or pathological conditions. The studied samples can be injected either directly by the DIMS technique (direct introduction mass spectrometry) or following a chromatographic separation using GC/MS or LC/MS (gas or liquid chromatography / mass spectrometry). The DIMS approach leads to a significant reduction in analysis time, down to only a few minutes (usually less than 3 min). Additionally, in combination with Fourier transform mass spectrometers (DIFTMS), it provides very high mass resolving power and accurate mass measurements, as well as a wide dynamic range resulting in improved efficiency. Nevertheless, the DI-FTMS approach generates complex data containing several thousands of peaks. Processing such large data sets requires the development of dedicated chemometric and statistical tools to detect exposure biomarkers. Therefore, the objective of my work was to develop a rapid, highthroughput workflow, including the development of chemometric tools, in order to highlight metabolomic perturbations induced by exposure to toxicants. The first part of this work concerns the study of farmers professionally exposed to two pesticides. The DIMS approach was performed on an Orbitrap instrument and a new chemometric tool called Independent Component - Discriminant Analysis (IC-DA) was developed for supervised analysis of the DIMS data. The developed methodology was then applied to a larger number of samples corresponding to five types of exposure. In this later study, two analytical approaches DIMS and LC/MS were examined in order to validate the DIMS approach as well as the developed chemometric data analysis tool. In a second part of this work, the DIMS approach was applied to an instrument of higher performances, the FT-ICR (Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance) equipped with a dynamically harmonized cell in order to improve the quality of the DIMS data. A first study explored the effects of exposure of rats to different concentrations of pesticides. In a second step, the procedure was applied to a large number of samples (of approximately 500 individuals) to test the robustness of the approach. All this work demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of our high-throughput metabolomic approach combining the direct introduction (DIMS), the very high resolution detection and the chemometric tools. This approach could be very promising to perform large scale metabolic phenotyping such as in epidemiological studies.