Évaluation de 3 méthodes de concentration sur la réactivité au stress, l'alexithymie, et leurs conséquences

par Sasima Pakulanon

Projet de thèse en Sciences du sport et du mouvement humain

Sous la direction de Christine Le scanff.

Thèses en préparation à Paris Saclay , dans le cadre de Sciences du Sport, de la Motricité et du Mouvement Humain , en partenariat avec Complexité, Innovation, Activités Motrices et Sportives (laboratoire) et de Université Paris-Sud (établissement de préparation de la thèse) depuis le 01-10-2015 .


  • Résumé

    Cette étude a pour but de mesurer l'efficacité de techniques psycho-corporelles sur la régulation émotionnelle et notamment l'alexithymie. La réactivité au stress ainsi que les conséquences sur le bien-être et les relations interpersonnelles seront également évaluées. Encore peu d'études se sont intéressés à la thérapie de l'alexithymie. La revue de littérature de Cameron et al. (2013) suggère que l'alexithymie est en partie modifiable avec des interventions psychothérapiques. Les traitements qui semblent les plus efficaces sont les approches psycho-éducationnelles qui mettent l'accent sur l'identification, la description et la compréhension des états émotionnels. Inciter les patients à verbaliser ce qu'ils ressentent quand ils sont activés émotionnellement lors d'une exposition leur permet d'apprendre à faire face aux émotions négatives, et aux sensations corporelles déplaisantes. De la même façon, les stratégies qui permettent de focaliser son attention sur des sensations affectives dans le corps (hypnose, relaxation) sont également présentes dans plusieurs thérapies pour entraîner à la régulation des affects. Ces études sont cependant peu nombreuses et aucune n'a porté sur l'efficacité de techniques corporelles et psycho-corporelles sans verbalisation sur l'alexithymie et la réactivité au stress. Les exercices physiques associés à la méditation, comme dans le yoga, ont-ils un effet supérieur à des pratiques de concentration mentale passive comme dans l'hypnose ou active, comme dans la méditation ? Nous souhaitons également inscrire le processus d'apprentissage de ces techniques sur le long terme et évaluer leurs effets sur un an.

  • Titre traduit

    Evaluation 3 methods focus on stress reactivity, alexithymia, and their consequence


  • Résumé

    Alexithymia is a multifaceted personality constructs targeting basic socio-emotional competencies. Individuals who score highly on this dimension take little interest in their inner emotional and fantasmatic life, have a cognitive style that is literal, utilitarian, and externally oriented, and experience difficulties in identifying emotions and describing what they feel to others (Taylor, & Bagby, 2004; Taylor, et al., 1997). Alexithymia involves a cognitive-affective impairment in the processing and regulation of emotion (Oskis, et al., 2013) and is associated with a vast array of physical and mental health problems such as substance use disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, depression, and eating disorder (Cameron, et al., 2013). Based on these results, some authors suggested that may act as a vulnerability factor for various diseases possibly by enhancing stress reactivity (de Timary, et al., 2008). Most of the previous research has shown relationships between alexithymia and stress-related diseases (de Timary, et al., 2008). In addition, Alexithymia (difficulty to describe feeling dimension) was a significant predictor of basal cortisol response (de Timary, et al., 2008; Hua, et al., 2014). Moreover, high alexithymia scores are related to deficits in abilities to connect with others and form close, meaningful relationships (Cameron, et al., 2013). Emotion regulation is thus also impaired in alexithymia regarding interpersonal issues (Woodman, et al., 2009). Most treatment approaches that are effective at reducing alexithymia put an emphasis on identifying, describing, and understanding emotional states and associate them with bodily sensations (Cameron, et al., 2013). An efficient intervention program for reducing alexithymia should guild participants to describe their feelings, while they experience emotional arousal during exercises. Another intervention method is meditation skill training which aims to improve attention and awareness (Cameron, et al., 2013). The awareness and attention are known as mindfulness. Mindfulness skill relies on meditation and intense focus to evoke the quieting of the mind for bringing concentration to the present moment (Gorgon, T., 2013). In addition, Yoga combines breathing techniques, meditation, muscle relaxation, and physical workout (Sarubin, et al., 2014) have been reported enhanced mindfulness (Field, 2011). Practicing Yoga is associated with several biochemical effects such as influence on blood pressure, heart rate, urinary cathacolamines and cortisol levels in healthy subjects (Sarubin, et al., 2014; Field, 2011). Moreover, Hypnosis imagery and group based intervention of psycho-education have been used as effective intervention of alexithymia in non-patient alexithymia participants (Gay, et al, 2008; Levant, et al., 2009). The present study aims to measure the effectiveness of psycho-physical techniques of emotional regulation on stress reactivity, well-being and relationships and to test if alexithymia would moderate these effects. Yet, only a few studies have focused on interventions aiming at reducing alexithymia and its negative outcomes. The literature review of Cameron et al. (2013) suggests that alexithymia can be treated by psychotherapeutic interventions. Treatments that seem to work best are the psycho-educational approaches that focus on the identification, description and understanding of emotional states. Encourage patients to verbalize what they feel when they are emotionally activated during exposure allows them to learn to deal with negative emotions and unpleasant bodily sensations. Similarly, the strategies that focus attention on emotional sensations in the body (hypnosis, relaxation) are also present in several therapies that lead to the regulation affect. None of these studies has examined the efficacy of physical and psycho-corporal techniques on alexithymia and stress reactivity. We will also examine the long term effects of these interventions, which was never done in the past.