Inflammation aiguë pulmonaire en réanimation : développement d'axes diagnostiques, préventifs et de thérapies immunomodulatrices

by Antoine Monsel

Doctoral thesis in Immunologie

Under the supervision of Michelle Rosenzwajg.

defended on 26-09-2016

in Paris 6 , under the authority of École doctorale physiologie, physiopathologie et thérapeutique , in a partnership with Immunologie - Immunopathologie - Immunothérapie (laboratoire) .

Thesis committee members: Sylvie Chollet-Martin, Jean Mantz, Olivier Langeron, Jean-Jacques Rouby, Jean-Michel Constantin.

  • Alternative Title

    Acute pulmonary inflammation in intensive care unit : research development in diagnosis, prevention and immunomodulatory therapies

  • Abstract

    Pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are two facets of severe acute lunginflammation, often met in intensive care unit (ICU). Rapid diagnosis of pneumonia remains essential inorder to optimize their management. We worked on setting up a quick test diagnosis based on theintensity of alveolar neutrophils autofluorescence. The validation of this test in a multicenter cohort isunderway. Preventing microaspiration across the cuff remains a priority to prevent pneumonia inmechanically ventilated patients. Based on the results of an ex vivo study followed by a clinicalrandomized trial, we showed that tapered-cuff endotracheal tube prevented microaspiration in the exvivo model, without lowering intraoperative microaspirations and postoperative pneumonia rate aftermajor vascular surgery. Both studies yielded similar results concerning the higher variation of cuffpressureover time, which leads to the question of their safety of use in terms of potential resultingtracheal wall ischemia.Pneumonia represents 80% of the cause of ARDS, which can be viewed as lung uncontrolledinflammatory response. Cell-based therapy using mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) is a growing field ofresearch in ARDS therapy. Despite numerous beneficial effects in ARDS, their capacity of self-renewalpoints them out as a potential cancer inducer in the mid-long term. In this context, evaluating thetherapeutic effects of extracellular vesicles-released from MSC (EV-MSC) represents a novel approach.We showed therapeutic effects of EC-CSM in two murine model of ARDS induced by endotoxin or liveEscherichia coli bacteria, and in another ex vivo human lung preparation.We then focused our research on temporal and compartmental dynamics of regulatory T cells(Treg) phenotypes in ARDS patients. This prospective observational clinical study showed that Early ARDSwas characterized with an alveolar compartment fully polarized towards pro-inflammatory state andneutrophils chemotaxis. In lung compartment, and compared to control patients, ARDS patients showeda quantitative Tregs deficiency, which partially recovered over time, while activation markers wereoverexpressed in both Tregs and effectors T cells (Teff). Conversely, patients with ARDS had a higherproportion of systemic Tregs compared to controls. Significant increased proportion in circulating Th1,Th22, and ILC1 subsets, and decreased proportion in ILC3 subsets were also found in ARDS patientscompared to controls.In conclusion, we developed novel strategies to diagnose and prevent pneumonia in ICU, whichremains essential to improve patients’ outcomes. Therapeutic effects of MSC and EV-MSC, as well asTreg phenotype alterations pave the way for development of novel immunoregulatory therapies.

  • Abstract

    Les deux formes d'inflammation pulmonaire en réanimation sont la pneumonie et le syndrome de détresse respiratoire aiguë (SDRA). Nous avons conçu un test diagnostique rapide basé sur l'autofluorescence des neutrophiles alvéolaires. S'appuyant sur une étude expérimentale, puis sur une étude clinique randomisée, nous avons montré que les sondes d'intubation avec ballonnets coniques diminuaient les micro-inhalations sans prévenir l'incidence des pneumonies post-opératoire. Une grande variabilité des pressions des ballonnets coniques pose la question de leur effet délétère. La thérapie cellulaire basée sur les cellules souches mésenchymateuses (CSM) est prometteuse. L'étude des effets thérapeutiques des vésicules extracellulaires issues de CSM (VE-CSM) constitue un nouvel axe de recherche. Dans 2 modèles murins de SDRA, puis dans un modèle de poumons humains ex vivo, nous avons démontré des effets thérapeutiques des VE-CSM. Nous avons ensuite étudié les lymphocytes T régulateurs (Treg) pulmonaires et systémiques dans le SDRA. Cette étude a montré un déficit quantitatif plutôt que fonctionnel de la population Treg pulmonaire dans le SDRA, avec une cinétique évoquant un recrutement des Treg circulants vers le compartiment pulmonaire au cours de la maladie. En conclusion, nos travaux ont développé de nouvelles stratégies diagnostiques et préventives des pneumonies de réanimation, afin de réduire leur impact en termes de morbi-mortalité. Les bénéfices thérapeutiques des CSM et des VE-CSM dans le SDRA expérimental, ainsi que l'altération du phénotype Treg observé chez nos patients, ouvrent de nouveaux champs de recherche vers le développement d'immunothérapies innovantes.

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