Study of photonic crystals on thin film lithium niobate for sensing applications - design, fabrication and characterization

par Wentao Qiu

Thèse de doctorat en Electronique, microelectronique, optique et lasers, optoelectronique microondes

Sous la direction de Maria-Pilar Bernal-Artajona et de Fadi Issam Baida.

Soutenue le 21-06-2016

à Besançon , dans le cadre de École doctorale Sciences pour l'ingénieur et microtechniques (Besançon ; Dijon ; Belfort) , en partenariat avec FEMTO-ST : Franche-Comté Electronique Mécanique Thermique et Optique - Sciences et Technologies (Besançon) (équipe de recherche) et de Franche-Comté Électronique Mécanique, Thermique et Optique - Sciences et Technologies (laboratoire) .

  • Titre traduit

    Etude de cristaux photoniques sur couche mince de niobate de lithium pour l’application de capteurs - conception, fabrication et caractérisation


  • Résumé

    La lumière est incroyable polyvalente pour mesurer toutes sortes de grandeurs physiques : température, champ électrique, déplacement et déformation, etc. Les capteurs photoniques sont des candidats prometteurs pour les développements de nouvelles générations de capteurs en raison de leurs vertus de sensibilité élevée, une grande gamme dynamique, etc. Les capteurs intégrés et ceux placés en bout de fibre sur une couche mince de niobate de lithium seront ici étudiés en explorant l’électro-optique ainsi que les pyro-électronique afin de concevoir des capteurs de champs et de capteurs de température.


  • Résumé

    Light is incredibly versatile for measuring all kinds of physical quantities :temperature, electric field (E-field), displacement and strain etc. Photonic sensors are promising candidates for the new generation of sensors developments due to their virtues of high sensitivity, large dynamic range and compact size etc. Integrated and on-fiber end photonic sensors on thin film lithium niobate (TFLN) exploring the electro-optic (EO) and pyro-electric effects are studied in this thesis in order to design E-field sensors and temperature sensors (T-sensors). These studies aim to develop sensors with high sensitivity and compact size. To achieve that aim, sensors that are made of photonic crystals (PhC) cavities are studied by sensing the measurand through the resonance wavelength interrogation method. In integrated sensor studies, intensive numerical calculations by PWE method, mode solving technique and FDTD methods are carried out for the design of high light confinement waveguiding structures on TFLN and suitable PhC configurations. Four types of waveguide (WG) structures (ridge WG, strip loaded WG, slot WG and double slot WG) are studied with a large range of geometrical parameters. Among them, slot WG yields the highest confinement factor while strip loaded WG is an easier option for realizations. Bragg grating is designed in slot WG with an ultra compact size (about 0.5µm×0.7µm ×6µm) and is employed to design PhC cavity. A moderate resonance Q of about 300 in F-P like cavity where the mirrors are made of PhC is achieved with ER of about 70% of the transmission. Theoretical minimum E-field sensitivity of this slot Bragg grating structure can be as low as 200 µV/m. On the other hand, Si3N4 strip loaded WG is designed with 2D PhC structure and a low resonance Q of about 100 is achieved. Fabrications of nano-metrical WG such as ridge WG Si3N4 strip loaded are demonstrated. However, the realization of nanometric components on LN presents a big challenge.In the on-fiber end sensor studies, guided resonance, oftentimes referred to as Fano resonance due to its asymmetric lineshape, is studied with different PhC lattice types. A Suzuki phase lattice (SPL) PhC presenting a Fano resonance at the vicinity of 1500 nm has been studied and demonstrated as temperature sensor with sensitivity of 0.77 nm/oC with a size of only 25 µm × 24 µm. In addition, guided resonances on rectangular lattice PhC have been systematically studied through band diagram calculations, 2D-FDTD and 3D- FDTD simulations.


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