Thèse de doctorat en Chimie
Sous la direction de Audrey Auffrant.
Soutenue en 2015
For the past decades, organometallic and coordination chemistry have proven to be fields of major importanceby allowing the preparation of catalysts that are able to perform unpreceded chemical reactions, in addition with the discovery of unusual species with physical and chemical properties that are very interesting. All these studies are underlining the primordial role of the ligand, which allows fine-tuning of the properties of such species. Our laboratory has gained considerable experience in the synthesis and the study of the coordination chemistry of ligands bearing the iminophosphorane moieties (RN=PR’3). These ligands, still poorly studied in the literature, present electronic properties that are strongly deviating from those of their carbon-analogues, i. E. Imines. This thesis is focused on the synthesis of a new family of (un)symmetrical, lutidine-based iminophosphorane ligands. Initially, the coordination chemistry of these ligands with transition metals is described with a focus on copper. Hemilabile behaviour is highlighted and shown to be related to the oxidation state of the copper metal centre, furnishing a redox-switchable system. These complexes are then shown to be useful in a number of catalytic reactions. Then, the coordination chemistry of these ligands is explored with lanthanides, more particularly divalent. These metals are strong reductants and are able to activate a variety of substrates like carbon dioxide for example, however such reactivities must be restrained by an appropriate ligand set. In particular, the study of the coordination chemistry of the new ligand family with metallocenes of ytterbium(II) is exhibiting lability phenomena, either of the iminophosphorane ligand or of the phospholyl ligand on the ytterbium centre. Moreover, the coordination chemistry of these ligands with uranium is briefly described. The synthesis and the coordination chemistry of mixed iminophosphorane-phosphine ligands are described subsequently. These ligands exhibit properties of dearomatization of the central pyridine scaffold. This phenomenon is studied with palladium(II) complexes, as the reactivity of these species with boranes. The reactivity of these new mixed ligands is also studied with ruthenium. Particularly, the presence of a hydride leads to the formation of an organometallic bond between the ligand and the ruthenium centre with the loss of hydrogen. In the last part, a new family of ligands bearing phenoxide moieties is studied. The oxidative and reductive chemistry of the copper and uranium complexes are explored and show a large divergence in comparison with the imines analogues of these ligands. Finally, the use of their nickel complexes as catalysts for the dimerization of ethylene is presented. All the results are supported by solid-state analysis, mainly by X-ray diffraction experiments; in solution the behavior of the species are studied by means of multinuclear NMR studies; finally some compounds are also investigated in silico by DFT calculations.
Synthesis and reactivity of iminophosphorane-based complexes : from transitions metals to actinides
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