La notion du prochain dans la tradition chrétienne : propédeutique d’un nouvel humanisme chez Emmanuel Levinas


Thèse de doctorat en Philosophie - Etudes des systèmes

Sous la direction de Jean-Jacques Wunenburger.

Soutenue le 20-01-2012

à Lyon 3 , dans le cadre de École doctorale de philosophie (Lyon) .

Le président du jury était Dominique Folscheid.

Le jury était composé de Jean-Michel Salanskis, Jean-Philippe Pierron.

Les rapporteurs étaient Jean-Michel Salanskis.

  • Résumé

    Il s'agit de définir les éléments de l'héritage philosophique pouvant servir de paradigme et, en même temps, des moyens pour sortir de la violence entre les hommes en général, et les africains en particulier. donc, espérant trouver chez emmanuel levinas la possibilité de la promotion d'une paix durable, en rapport avec sa pensée, élément indispensable d'un humanisme basé sur les droits de l'homme et de l'<<autre homme>>, le respect de la vie, le dialogue, la justice, la fraternité, la tolérance, la responsabilité, etc. notre recherche concerne l'époque contemporaine et nous allons nous appuyer beaucoup plus sur la pensée d'emmanuel levinas, philosophie français, d'origine juive.

  • Titre traduit

    The notion of neighbour in the christian tradition : propedeutic of a new humanism in emmanuel levinas

  • Résumé

    Our research would try to show that nowadays more than ever, it seems to us that world needs both a social ethic and a political plan based on that ethic. The latter (ethic) far from being understood as series of normative codes of acting or being ( conjugated in the imperative mood according to the style of Kant, it is, as for us all through our thesis the relationship with the neighbour, the other one speaking of the individual and the relationships settled by institutional devices that rule social life.Therefore, our own way of thinking about common life with the other, seemed essential to us because the ethic according to the meaning given by Levinas is radically that “infinite responsibility” towards the neighbour (witch means that deacon’s responsibility without any reward and totally assumed by the one who helps) in which we can guess an enigmatic forn of transcendence, the beyond of the individual subject that is a sign in meeting of two subjects.Indeed, for Levinas the real being of man is in his face where he is completely different; that assertion does sum up what is the heart of his work and our philosophical concern: the problem of a social relationship based on justice and kept alive but and through peace. And if we do insist on the Christian heritage as the essential element of the thought of Levinas it is when he tries to promote the humanism of the neighbour. Besides, that same heritage has influenced too some philosophers who believed in God such as Franz Rosenzweig, Emmanuel Mounier, Paul Ricoeur, Edith Stein and so on.Nevertheless, sounding out the ways of thinking of Levinas doesn’t necessarily give the definitive orientation line from which man could set an absolutely unbreakable system of coordinates and references allowing the organisation of the whole political system. As far us we are concerned, we don’t believe at all that we must follow literal accuracy. A certain “faithlessness” to some main points of his philosophy has besides underlined our faifthfulness that remains true even if we may have stood back from his thought.

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