Thèse de doctorat en Géographie
Soutenue le 08-04-2011
à Paris 10 , dans le cadre de Ecole doctorale Milieux, cultures et sociétés du passé et du présent (Nanterre) .
Le président du jury était Pema Choephyel.
Comparative analysis of using companion modelling to facilitate adaptive management of agricultural water in Bhutan
The customary regime of NRM in Bhutan faces greater challenges from economic development, rapid transformation of social values, local institutions and traditional perceptions on NR. Although Bhutan is projected rich in water resource for hydropower potentials, water for agriculture and domestic use is fast becoming scarcer and highly contested. As the water becomes scarce the people living in highlands are most severely affected. A detail diagnostic study of two communities, Lingmuteychu depedent of irrigated rice and Kengkhar depedent on dryland farming presents two situations of water resource issues. In Lingmuteychu the conflict of irrigation water sharing for cultivation of rice among seven villages has been inflicting restentment in all aspect of society. In contrary, in Kengkhar has been facing drinking water scarcity as the natural spring ponds dry, which forces people to walk from more than five hours to fetch water from the river. In these two sites Companion Modelling was applied to enhance understanding of water resource management dynamics and improve shared communication and learning to facilitate adaptative management dynamics and improve shared communication and learning to facilitate adaptative management strategies. The study provides as comparison of the process followerd in two sites with analysis of impacts and effects from the process. The research illustrates fow ComMod process help develop trust and and commitment in the conflicting community and pave pathways to develop social capital for adaptive management of water resource. The process was able to foster shared learning and co-construct collective actions which were implementable. The research also revealed the important role of the researchers in furthering and sustaining newly achieved cooperation. The ABMs provided an opportunity to re-create different water resource management strategies which could be used as options for the community. The research also demonstrates the feasibility of applying the ComMod approach in different fields of NRM.