Synthesis, biological and structural analysis of organized biomimetic systems

par Lubomir Vezenkov

Thèse de doctorat en Chimie des matériaux

Sous la direction de Jean Martinez et de Muriel Amblard.

Le jury était composé de Jean Martinez, Carla Caruso, Claudia Crestini, Gilles Subra.

Les rapporteurs étaient Giovanni Natile, Nadia Patino.

  • Titre traduit

    Synthèse, analyse structurale et biologique de systèmes biomimétiques organisés


  • Résumé

    Le passage des médicaments a travers la membrane cellulaire représente souvent une limitation majeur dans un grand nombre de thérapies (anti-cancéreuse, anti-virale par exemple). Des peptides vecteurs connus comme les CPPs (cell penetrating peptides) ont été utilises avec succès pour introduire a l’intérieur des cellules diverses molécules (protéines, peptides, siRNA, quantum dots) et présentent un fort potentiel dans l'adressage de médicaments. Parmi les différents CPPs décrits dans la littérature la plupart sont des peptides basiques ou amphiphiles.Nous nous sommes intéressés a l'utilisation d’oligomères non charges construits a partir de motifs contraints mimes de dipeptides comme vecteurs de pénétration cellulaire. L'internalisation cellulaire et leur localisation ont été établies a l'aide de dérivés fluorescents par microscopie confocale. L' étude de pénétration cellulaire par mesure de fluorescence a montre que des oligomères de (3S)-amino-5-carbonylmethyl-2,3-dihydro-1,5-benzothiazepine-4(5H)-one] (DBT) sont aussi puissants que les oligomères d'arginine (oligoArg), vecteurs de référence. Par microscopie confocale nous avons montré que ces composés sont internalisés dans les lysosomes. L’efficacité d'internalisation de nos composés a été confirmé par une méthode de quantification par spectrométrie de masse MALDI-TOF développée dans notre groupe. Cette méthode repose sur l'utilisation conjointe d'un marqueur UV-absorbant dérivé de l'acide alfa-cyano-4-hydoxycinnamique (HCCA) et d'une matrice MALDI adaptée. Un effet important de discrimination spectrale est obtenu, permettant une amplification du signal de la molécule d' intérêt dans un mélange complexe. Ainsi les faibles concentrations internalisées peuvent être détectées. Grâce a cette technique et l'utilisation d'un étalon deutéré, nous avons calculé la concentration intracellulaire de deux CPP de référence l'octa-arginine et la pénétratine. Nous avons aussi étudier l’internalisation de petits oligomères construits a partir d'acide 2-aminomethyl-phenyl-acetique (AMPA). Par microscopie confocal nous avons constaté que ces petits oligomères sont internalisés par voie endo-lysosomale.L’efficacité de la pénétration cellulaire de ces petits oligomères aromatiques (oligoAMPA et oligoDBT) offre une nouvelle classe de vecteurs qui ont la particularité d’être non-cationiques et hydrophobes. De tels composés pourraient être utilisés pour la délivrance de médicaments dans le traitement des maladies comme le cancer, les maladies lysosomales ou la maladie d'Alzheimer. Afin de montrer que cette nouvelle classe de vecteurs est capable d'internaliser des composés biologiquement actifs, nous les avons associés a un inhibiteur puissant de la Cathepsine D (CD) la pepstatine. CD est une endopeptidase lysosomale qui dans des conditions normales est localisée dans les endosomes et les lysosomes. Pour certains cancers, la CD est surexprimée et secrétée a l’extérieur de la cellule. La CD est probablement impliquée dans la prolifération des cellules cancéreuses par l'activation de certains facteurs de croissances dans les endosomes. La pepstatine est une inhibiteur puissant de la CD. Cependant son efficacité thérapeutique potentielle est limitée par une faible capacité de pénétration des membranes cellulaires et une faible solubilité nécessitant de fortes doses pour l'inactivation de la CD in vitro et in vivo. Afin d’améliorer son efficacité et sa biodisponibilité, des conjugues de la pepstatine avec nos vecteurs de pénétration cellulaire, oligo (AMPA)4 et (DBT)4, et une partie solubilisante ont été développés. Certains de ces bioconjugués ont montre une toxicité élevée (IC50 = 2.10-6) in vitro sur différentes lignées cellulaires tumorales. Des tests in vivo sur des souris sont prévus pour le futur.


  • Résumé

    As a part of a program for foldamer design two ¦Â-turn mimetics (3S)-amino-5-(carboxylmethyl)-2,3-dihydro-1,5-benzothiazepin-4(5H)-one or DBT and 2-aminomethyl-phenyl-acetic acid or AMPA were selected as frameworks from a molecular modeling study for their suitability to adopt helical structure. At first we developed a highly efficient scale up synthesis of the DBT moiety protected by 9-fluorenylmetoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) group. By standard solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) we synthesized DBT oligomers of different lenghts and modifications were introduced at their N-terminus. Our first task was to perform structural analysis of the oligomers by NMR and X-Ray. Numerous NOE interactions in the DBT pentamer and hexamer molecules were detected by NMR 2D NOESY experiments. These data strongly suggest the organization of these DBT oligomers. Small crystals were obtained from the same molecules in DMSO but at the time being their size is not importan t enough for X-Ray crystallography studies. In a parallel study we hypothesized that short oligomers constructed by DBT or AMPA frameworks could translocate the cellular membrane and could be used as new cell penetrating non-peptides - CPNP. Even though these compounds are not charged as most cell penetrating peptides (CPP)5 or CPNP, we considered that by virtue of their aromaticity, hydrophobicity and their well-organized structure they could have a non-specific interaction with the lipid bilayer and thus be internalized into the cell. Short oligomers were synthesized on Rink amide (RA) resin following SPPS methodology and labelled at their N-terminus with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). At first the cellular uptake of the (DBT)2-4 oligomers in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells was analyzed by fluorescence emission measurement and compared to the potent and well-studied CPP octa-arginine (Arg)8 as a positive control and carboxyfluorescein as a negative control. The highest intracellular fluorescence intensity was found for (DBT)4 with a drastic decrease (>4-times) for (DBT)3 and (DBT)2 oligomers. Thus, the cellular uptake appeared length-dependent with an increase of the internalization with the oligomer size. Moreover, the amount of (DBT)4 that was internalized was more significant than that of (Arg)8 despite the fact that it is uncharged. By confocal microscopy we determined that (DBT)4 is mainly localized in the endosomes after 3 hours of incubation and in the lysosomes after 16 hours of incubation. Altogether, these data indicate the ability of these oligomers to target the endolysosomal pathway. Although most of the initial drug delivery studies aimed to avoid lysosomal addressing to prevent subsequent drug degradation, more recent studies demonstrated the relevant clinical utility to target this compartment for drug delivery in the treatment of lysosomal storage diseases, Alzheimer¡¯s disease, and cancer.While analyzing the internalization efficiency of our CPNP we decided to straightforward evaluate their concentration inside the cells. We studied our compounds internalization by total fluorescence emission measurement and by confocal microscopy but none of these techniques gave us the possibility to determine the exact amount of compound internalized per cell. A study reported by Burlina et al. brought a great improvement in proposing a highly reproducible quantification method based on MALDI-TOF MS to measure the concentration of the internalized peptides. However, after cell lysis, this method requires the capture of the biotin-labelled CPP by streptavidin coated magnetic beads. This step is particularly critical for the accuracy of the quantification. This is the reason why we decided to develop a new general methodology based on MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) which does not require any purification or separation steps. We studied the internalization of CPP/CPNP compou nds by using an UV light-absorbing tag alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (HCCA) and preparing the samples in a neutral matrix such as alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic methyl ester (HCCE). This combination (HCCA tag and HCCE matrix) enabled us to discriminate MS signals induced by peptides of interest that were present in low concentration from those of unlabelled more abundant peptides. By addition of a precise amount of deuterated-HCCA-tagged CPP/CPNP prior the MALDI TOF MS experiment, the internalized CPP/CPNP could be quantified on the basis of the ratio between the [M+H]+ peaks of the deuterated and nondeuterated HCCA-tagged CPP.Another direction for research was to synthesize bioconjugates between our newly discovered CPNP and some biologically active compounds that are unable to cross the cell membrane. We selected pepstatine which is a powerful transition state inhibitor of the Cathepsin D (CD). Pepstatine while a very potent inhibitor of the CD is unable to cross the cellular membrane. Moreover pepstatine activity in vitro or in vivo is hampered by its poor solubility in water. CD is a soluble lysosomal aspartic endopeptidase synthesized in rough endoplasmic reticulum as preprocathepsin D (pCD).12 Upon entering the acidic endosomal and lysosomal compartments proteolytic cleavages of the pCD result in the formation of the active enzymatic form of CD. Under normal physiological conditions pCD is sorted to the lysosomes and found intracellularly but in some pathological and physiological conditions like cancer pCD/CD escape the normal targeting mechanism and is secreted from the cell. Once secreted to the outside, pCD can be endocytosed via M6PR or yet unknown receptor by both cancer cells and fibroblasts. The endocytosed pCD undergoes maturation into the enzymatically active CD. An enzymatic activity of CD outside of the cell or inside the endosomes could be responsible for the activation of several growth factors and growth factor receptors. Several groups have proven that the tumour growth is not inhibited by the powerful CD inhibitor pepstatine. These results exclude the importance of the CD enzymatic activity outside of the cell but as already mentioned pepstatine is unable to penetrate into the cell thus CD activation of growth factors inside the endosomes or the lysosomes is still a possibility. Different CPNP-Pepstatine conjugates were synthesized and tested in vitro for their ability to inhibit MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells growth. Some of these conjugates showed high cytotoxicity, probably via a Cathepsin D inhibition in the endosomes or the lysosomes. One o f the most potent tested compounds was JMV4463. This compound was obtained by the conjugation of pepstatine with a CPNP as delivery system (AMPA4) and with solubilizing moiety composed of polyethylene glycol and D-Arginine residue. The good in vitro results obtained with the vectorized pepstatine encouraged us to perform in vivo tests. We performed scale up synthesis of JMV4463 in order to obtain enough product for anti-cancer activity on mice in the near future.


Il est disponible au sein de la bibliothèque de l'établissement de soutenance.

Consulter en bibliothèque

La version de soutenance existe

Où se trouve cette thèse ?

  • Bibliothèque : Bibliothèque interuniversitaire. Section Pharmacie.
Voir dans le Sudoc, catalogue collectif des bibliothèques de l'enseignement supérieur et de la recherche.