Acclimatations des manchots aux contraintes de l’environnement polaire : approches transcriptomique et intégrative sur le manchot Royal (Aptenodytes patagonicus) et le manchot Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae)

par Cyril Dégletagne

Thèse de doctorat en Physiologie

Sous la direction de Claude Duchamp et de Mireille Raccurt.

Le président du jury était Joël Lachuer.

Les rapporteurs étaient Christian Diot, Jean-Patrice Robin.


  • Résumé

    King penguins have successfully colonized cold ecosystems of the southern hemisphere by developing physiological mechanisms that are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate, at different integrative levels from the gene to the whole animal, the functional responses developed by penguins to overcome polar constrains. We focused on acclimatization mechanisms enabling the first departure to sea of king penguin immatures and the rapid growth of Adélie penguin chicks.To explore differentially expressed genes in pectoralis muscle during penguin’s first sea acclimatization, we used Affymetrix microarrays design for chicken. We first set up and validated a new method to analyze heterologous hybridization transcriptomic profiles. We highlighted a selective shift in metabolic pathways favoring the use of lipids as fuel to sustain highly energetic needs imposed by marine life-style. Our results revealed a development of a global antioxidant response, potential consequences of penguin marine life-style that imposes repeated dives under apnea.Secondly, our integrative study on Adélie penguin’s chick revealed the development of molecular and cellular mechanisms which sustain an original strategy by first allocating most of the energy to growth and then promoting thermogenic processes.Our results showed that both king and Adélie penguins develop complex and coordinated physiological responses to energetic constraints highlighting their high phenotypic plasticity.

  • Titre traduit

    Penguin acclimatization to polar environmental constraints : a transcriptomic and integrative study in King (Aptenodytes patagonicus) and Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae).


  • Résumé

    King penguins have successfully colonized cold ecosystems of the southern hemisphere by developing physiological mechanisms that are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate, at different integrative levels from the gene to the whole animal, the functional responses developed by penguins to overcome polar constrains. We focused on acclimatization mechanisms enabling the first departure to sea of king penguin immatures and the rapid growth of Adélie penguin chicks.To explore differentially expressed genes in pectoralis muscle during penguin’s first sea acclimatization, we used Affymetrix microarrays design for chicken. We first set up and validated a new method to analyze heterologous hybridization transcriptomic profiles. We highlighted a selective shift in metabolic pathways favoring the use of lipids as fuel to sustain highly energetic needs imposed by marine life-style. Our results revealed a development of a global antioxidant response, potential consequences of penguin marine life-style that imposes repeated dives under apnea.Secondly, our integrative study on Adélie penguin’s chick revealed the development of molecular and cellular mechanisms which sustain an original strategy by first allocating most of the energy to growth and then promoting thermogenic processes.Our results showed that both king and Adélie penguins develop complex and coordinated physiological responses to energetic constraints highlighting their high phenotypic plasticity.


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  • Bibliothèque : Université Claude Bernard. Service commun de la documentation. Bibliothèque numérique.
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