Sûreté de fonctionnement des convertisseurs - Nouvelles structures de redondances pour onduleurs sécurisés à tolérance de pannes

par Zhifeng Dou

Thèse de doctorat en Génie Electrique

Sous la direction de Frédéric Richardeau et de Emmanuel Sarraute.

Soutenue le 04-11-2011

à Toulouse, INPT .


  • Résumé

    Au sein d'un convertisseur la défaillance d'un composant de puissance est un événement critique tant par le risque d'explosion du boitier et sa propagation au sein du système (forte énergie stockée dans l'alimentation) que par l'interruption de service qui en découle (systèmes embarqués, systèmes de production en flux tendu). Ce mémoire de thèse propose un ensemble de solutions nouvelles portant sur la problématique de l'isolement ultime de défauts "derniers secours" d'une part, et sur la connexion "automatique" et à faible "coût" d'un circuit en secours. L'objectif de cette approche globale est de concilier "sécurité électrique absolue" et "continuité de service" pour les systèmes de conversion sensibles devant être intégrés au coeur des applications critiques. Le premier chapitre et son annexe permettent de rappeler les causes et les conséquences des défauts internes au sein d'une structure de base d'onduleur à deux niveaux de tension, laquelle fait l'objet de nombreuses simulations de modes dégradés en configuration variateur de vitesse sur machine synchrone. De cette analyse il ressort qu'une structure d'isolement symétrique à deux voies couplées, placées sur les pôles du bus DC, à déclenchement spontané (fusible) et/ou commande (rupteur), est à même de sécuriser toutes les mailles du circuit, de façon modulaire et non intrusive.

  • Titre traduit

    Dependability of the converters : New structures for inverters redundancy secure fault-tolerant


  • Résumé

    In all these traditional industries, or in more sensitive sectors and high technology, it appears that the safe operation of power systems becomes a critical and strategic area essential. In the area of application that focuses, design dependability and now rests primarily on an approach to reliability of components used, the use of close protection, monitoring alarms and management stop / reset / recovery. In our view, this approach is incomplete quickly when electrical safety and absolute continuity of a permanent mission should be carried out simultaneously in the presence of an internal failure of sensitive functions for low and medium power (eg, orders and bodies actuation of vehicles) or highly critical (nuclear). In this area, topologies and failure modes are at the heart of the problem. In this paper, we will focus primarily on the inverters and choppers structures at two levels of voltage (single-cell arm, <1kV), with simple configuration and multiphase parallel, although the concepts are presented, as examples, partially extrapolated to the structures of three voltage levels (arms multicellular) and rectifier (low-frequency phase control and high-frequency switching PWM). We will highlight the need to limit the intensity of these failures and to electrically isolate the defective cell and symmetrically of this inverter by multipole devices, passive or spontaneous breaking mixed cut ordered in the form of fuses integrated and distributed of multi-channel passive isolators, to imagine and develop. We will show that this process of isolation of the last backup is needed to connect, form series or parallel to the defective cell, a cell rescue in passive redundancy. The cell structure backup connection pooled by spontaneous (automatic) is especially promising as detailed in our eyes because of its simplicity and its integrability. Next, we present the isolation technologies fuse (not included, miniatures, CMS and multilayer chip fuse), their characteristics, their current limitations and operating in a switching cell test. A methodology and design of symmetrical two-way fuse (dual-fuse) on FR4 PCB - Copper will be presented in Comsol ™ and evaluated initially in static thermal IR. A passive two-way switch, relatively original material for integrating energy embedded in FR4 substrate, will be presented and fully dimensioned plans on electrical, thermal and mechanical also using finite element simulations in Comsol ™. Another aspect of exploratory analysis, mainly experimental, or to characterize the failure modes of bullets and casings ultimate power compared between the technologies of encapsulation by epoxy resin (standard discrete case) and a silicone gel (module) is provided under conditions of stress controlled and reproducible. This step is necessary to characterize the resistive mode of a chip based on faulty stresses and stability over time of the residual strength according to the nature of the encapsulant, ie the very sustainability of this failure mode. A mixed-encapsulant resin - gel will be presented and characterized, providing an excellent compromise for medium power applications. Positive results and little known today, will allow us to exploit in the next chapter, this property of stable ohmic mode of the chip failed in a structure to aid automated connection series interesting. In the end, we will detail the demonstrator prototype and introduced to the context with which we will validate the isolation structures and prototypes fuses the property of stable ohmic mode highlighted in the aspect of technological analysis of selected devices. These results allow us to refine the solutions adopted for specifications and guide future management strategy of defects whether internal or external to the topology. Supervisor digital device - sensor for the detection and reconfiguration of internal control orders will be assessed.


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