Thèse de doctorat en Aspects moléculaires et cellulaires de la biologie
Sous la direction de José Courty.
Soutenue le 03-12-2010
à Paris Est, dans le cadre de École doctorale Sciences de la Vie et de la Santé (Paris-Est), en partenariat avec CRRET - Croissance cellulaire, réparation et régénération tissulaires (laboratoire) .
Le président du jury était Dulce Papy-Garcia.
Résumé français manquant
Study on the effects of Glycosaminoglycan Mimetics on progenitors and mesenchymal stem cells properties, potential uses in regenerative medicine
Scientific background: GAGs mimetics properties on regenerative process.Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are sulfated polysaccharides actually considered as major structural components of the extracellular matrix as well as regulators of cells functions during homeostatic and pathological processes. These GAGs activities are based on their ability to interact with heparin binding growth-factors (HBGF), chemokines and enzymes, to protect them from proteolytic degradation and to potentialyze their interaction with cell surface specific receptors and/or other components of the ECM. GAGs are characterized by their extensive structural diversity, based on the number and location of sulfate or acetylate groups, that would determine specific biological interactions.As comparative tool to study the relationship between the complexity of GAGs chemical structures and their biological functions, we used synthetic GAGs mimetics, derivate from a polymer of dextran and functionalized with carboxylate, sulfate and/or acetate groups. They are structurally and functionally related to natural heparan sulfates. These compounds improved both the rate and quality of regenerative process in numerous animal models of injury after topical treatment.Our hypothesize is that specific HS cooperative interactions with HBGF and ECM compounds could influence both therapeutic progenitors and stem cells properties by compartmentalizing them to specific microenvironment niches, and protecting them against deleterious signals. Such abilities to modulate stem cell biology could be a new way to explain and to take advantage of regenerative properties of these compounds. The principal aim of this work was to demonstrate the effects of GAGs mimetics on Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) properties for application in bone repair. GAGs mimetics as new potentializing agents of mesenchymal stem cells propertiesDuring osteogenesis, a controlled expression of functional HS is required to interact and regulate the activity of growth promoting and osteogenic differentiation factors. However effects of GAGs on MSC properties remain to be analyzed. We focus on two GAGs mimetics leader molecules [OTR4131] and [OTR4120], with distinct chemical characteristics, since sulfated mimetic [OTR4120] was previously shown to stimulate bone repair in vivo. We demonstrate that its acetylated and sulfated counterpart [OTR4131] enhances proliferation, whereas [OTR4120] clearly stimulates migration and osteogenic differentiation properties of rat MSC in vitro, that could explain its bone regenerative effect in vivo. This indicates that GAGs mimetics would be of great interest for potential application in therapy, since according to their structural signature they could modulate specific activities of progenitors and stem cells, and represent an alternative to exogenous growth factor treatments. New matricial strategy for bone repair associating GAGs mimetics to biomaterials and human MSCCell based therapy associated to biomaterials for repair of bone defects are promising but not enough efficient. We proposed to develop matricial strategy, associating efficient micro-environment molecules such as GAGs mimetics, to optimize cell therapeutic approaches. First we validated that GAGs mimetics are effective on human MSC proliferation, migration and differentiation properties in vitro. We demonstrated that colonization efficiency of hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate biomaterial scaffolds by human MSC was improved when scaffolds are functionalized with GAGs mimetics in vitro. Finally osteoformation in vivo was evaluated after ectopic transplantation of functionalized and/or cellularized biomaterials in nude mice: few effects were observed on bone formation, whereas osteoclastogenesis and vascularization were clearly modulated by GAGs mimetics immobilized. GAGs mimetics as new mobilizing agents of stem cells...