Thèse de doctorat en Histoire des techniques et de l'environnement
Sous la direction de André Guillerme.
Soutenue en 2010
à Paris, CNAM .
The industrialization of buildings : the case of prefabrication in the construction of schools in France (1951-1973)
Pas de résumé disponible.
This thesis examines the relationship between the industrialization of building methods and the prefabrication of school buildings in France. This relationship relies on the interaction between technical reason and public policies with the organization of production processes. The boundary of this study begins in 1951, witnessed by a political drive to industrialize educational establishments, until 1973 when this type of construction was put into question. During this period the industrialization of building methods was considered as the unique solution to the needs for mass production and quicker. Subsequently, the technology of prefabrication occurred in two distinct periods, giving rise to the separation between conceptual design (centralized by the DESUS) and realization (represented by construction methods). In the first period (1951-1962), the architects are the authors of the projects and in the second period (1964-1973) the construction methods are clearly visible. These events accentuate two logical opponents: mass production and series on one side, diversity and flexibility on the other. The encounter of such diverse sources (reviews, archives, technical documents…) reveals the relationship between each domain: architects (design and operations), educational planners, industrial entrepreneurs, ministerial offices for construction and survey teams (technical controls). This research contributes to history of prefabrication and its developments. The school building represents an example of the evolution of construction methods when prefabrication was making its mark in the wake of the Second World War.