Thèse de doctorat en Énergétique du bâtiment
This PhD thesis, in English, deals with the computation of daylight availability in buildings. It looks on one side, at models which can be used to compute the sky luminance distributions standardized by the International Commission of Illumination (CIE), on the other side, at the directional daylight factor method (DDF) which can use these distributions to compute illuminances in buildings. We first set up a sky luminance measurment system. It allowed us to measure more than 13000 sky luminance distributions. We then tested the performance of the 3 models most often used to compute sky luminances. We also studied the use of a digital camera fitted with a fish eye and calibrated in luminance. This system provides more information with a precision very close to the one of a sky luminance scanner. We then looked at the directional daylight factor method which helps in computing indoor illuminances resulting from any given sky luminance distribution to test the method, we test the method, we set up a scale model of an office with a facade aperture. The scale model was put outside and we measured every minute both the illuminances on the model surfaces and the luminances of the model surfaces and the luminances of the sky vault. Then, we applied the DDF method to compute indoor illuminances from the measured luminances. The comparison shows that the DDF method now allows to quickly compute indoor illuminances at least every hour. We recommend to perform the same measurements inside a real building for a duration of a year
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