Thèse de doctorat en Histoire
Sous la direction de Pierre Boilley.
Soutenue en 2005
à Paris 7 .
ENTRE LA FIN DU 19e SIECLE ET LE DEBUT DES ANNEES 2000, LES POPULATIONS DE LA BASSE-CASAMANCE SE SONT PROGRESSIVEMENT CONSTITUEES ET IMAGINEES EN COMMUNAUTE JOOLA. CE TRAVAIL ANALYSE LES PROCESSUS DE CETTE " IDENTISATION ", OU CONSTRUCTION IDENTITAIRE, QUI SE SONT ENGAGES ET RENFORCES AVEC LA CREATION, LA GESTION, L'IMAGINATION ET LES USAGES, DANS L'ORDRE COLONIAL PUIS INDEPENDANT, DE LA CASAMANCE ET DU SENEGAL EN D'AUTRES TERMES, IL ETUDIE LA FONCTION DE LA REPRESENTATION JOOLA EN EXAMINANT LA FAÇON DONT LES POPULATIONS DE LA BASSE-CASAMANCE, LA CASAMANCE, LE SENEGAL ET L'ETAT SE SONT MUTUELLEMENT PRATIQUES ET IMAGINES, FAVORISANT LA COMPOSITION D'UNE COMMUNAUTE JOOLA DONT L'IDENTITE NE S'EST STANDARDISEE QUE TRES RECEMMENT, SOUS L'EFFET DES TRAVAUX CULTURELS ET DES INVENTIONS DE LA TRADITION QUI SE SONT MULTIPLIES AVEC LE DECLENCHEMENT DU MOUVEMENT INDEPENDANTISTE CASAMANCAIS EN 1982. L'ETUDE DES CONSTRUCTIONS - ET DE LEURS ARTICULATIONS - DES IDENTITES JOOLA, CASAMANCAISE, SENEGALAISE ET CITOYENNE, EN PRIVILEGIANT UNE APPROCHE MULTIVOQUE DE L'IDENTITE JOOLA, MONTRE QUE C'EST DANS LA RUPTURE DE LA LIAISON CITOYENNE ET NON DANS LA FORMATION D'UNE IDENTITE JOOLA ET CASAMANCAISE QUE DOIT SE COMPRENDRE LA CRISE CASAMANCAISE CE TRAVAIL PERMET AUSSI D'ETUDIER AUTREMENT, A PARTIR DE LA PERIPHERIE JOOLA ET CASAMANCAISE, LE SENEGAL COLONIAL ET INDEPENDANT, LEURS MODELES, HERITAGES ET MODES DE TRANSMISSION. FONDEE SUR DES SOURCES D'ARCHIVES DE LA FRANCE COLONIALE ET SUR DES TEMOIGNAGES ORAUX, CETTE THESE A EGALEMENT ETE BASEE SUR DES ARCHIVES PRIVEES INEDITES ET INACCESSIBLES, QUE LE VOLUME D'ANNEXES PERMET DE CONSULTER EN PARTIE.
Between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the years 2000, the populations of lower casamance have gradually constituted and imagined themselves as a community and as a joola community. This work analyses the processes of this "identisation" - or identity building - which have emerged and seen themselves reinforced through the creation, the management, the imagination and the uses of casamance and senegal at first in the colonial order, then in the independent state. In other words, it examines the function of joola identity by going into the way the populations of lower casamance, casamance, senegal and the state were mutually practiced and imagined. This has promoted the composition of a community joola whose identity was standardized only very recently, under the effect of cultural works and inventions of tradition which has seen themselves multiplied with the start of the separatist movement of casamance in 1982. The study of the constructions - and theirs articulations - of the joola, casamancaise, senegalese and citizen identites, privileging various approaches of joola identity, shows that it is in the rupture of the citizenship connection and not in the formation of a joola or casamancaise identity that the casamance crisis must be understood. This work also allows to study differently, starting from the casamance and joola periphery, the colonial and the independent senegal, their models, heritages and modes of transmission. Based on sources of files of colonial and on oral testimonies, this thesis was also based on new and inaccessible private archives, that the volume of appendices makes it possible to consult partly.