Thèse de doctorat en Sciences de l'information et de la communication
Sous la direction de Jacques Perriault.
Soutenue en 2000
à Paris 10 .
Inquiry and labyrinth in literature and multimedia fiction : a socio-cognitive and communicational approach to interactive devices
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[Résumé en anglais] Multimedia fiction games inherit the structure of two important cognitive and cultural models : inquiries and labyrinths. Inquiry narrative combines the search for information and the interpretation of clues. Its narrative structure is characterized by a story whose progression is assured by the reconstitution of past events. Labyrinths have had a particular importance in literature and in games. They have become a writing experiment and a narrative technique associated with inquiries. The history of inquiry-labyrinth allows us to understand what multimedia fiction owes to the progressive shift of narrative in novels towards new forms and practices linked to greater reader participation in fiction and to interactive media. Inquiries stimulate the reader-player's cognitive activity and favour abductive inference. The labyrinth narrativises space, it is a vecor for perceptual immersion in fiction. Textual and multimedia devices are specific information systems but in both cases the solution is hidden and the objective is to prevent the reader-player's access to the relevant information whilst ensuring this information is clearly visible. The former use narrative devices. The latter, based upon the manipulation of objects, determine the reader's path , rarely using textual material and interpretative cooperation. Interpretation can be conceived as intersubjective space, generating meaning and social interactions. A balzacian literary game, morphologically close to multimedia games, was elaborated for this study and tested. It disrupts man/computer dual logic and introduces multiple actors. This experimentation allowed us to show up interpretatives procedures, the co-construction of hypotheses through dialogue and socio-cognitive interaction. Its results have also confirmed the hypothesis of the adaptability of litterature to multimedia.