Thèse de doctorat en Science politique
Sous la direction de EUGENE ENRIOUEZ.
Soutenue en 1998
à Paris 7 .
Sous ce titre, nous avons etudie les trajectoires politiques des dirigeants syndicaux bresiliens. Du militantisme politique de base a l'accession aux spheres de representation, de la centrale syndicale a l'adhesion aux partis politiques (parti des travailleurs), nous avons mesure les enjeux et les jeux de pouvoir chez les dirigeants syndicaux bresiliens (carrieres politique, administratives, parlementaire. . . ). Aussi bien, avons nous retenu une triple occurrence susceptible de rendre compte de la complexite socio-psychologique de ce que nous avons appele "trajectoires de pouvoir" : illusion, ideologie et pouvoir. Il est des lors apparu que l'illusion est au militantisme ce qui l'ideologie est au syndicalisme, ce dernier traduisant in fine le desir de pouvoir. En definitive, en nous aidant des apports de la sociologie clinique et de ce que les sciences humaines offrent, nous sommes parvenus, a travers des itineraires singuliers a mettre en evidence la pertinence du "moment subjectif" dans son rapport au monde syndical et objectif.
This work studies the political trajectories of the brazilian trade-union leaders from the beginning of their political commitment. "political trajectory" is meant here as "power trajectory", i. E. The evolution of trade-union leaders up to the workers' representative system (from trade unions to groups of affiliated trade unions and political parties). This study also illustrates the relations and power challenges representative of the trade-union organization, as well as their influence on leaders. Leaders usually start their career in trade unions, and then evolve from groups of affiliated trade unions to the political parties themselves, which are the starting point of their professional political career; they first exert power in trade unions, then in political institutions (from local authorities to parliaments, etc. ). This study analyzes how militants gain power positions within trade unions, how they move to the political parties, and the way they react to this evolution. Three main items contribute to commitment and continuity in this political environment : illusion, ideology and power. At the militants stage, illusion is the factor which most influences the conducts ; within the trade-union world, ideology plays a major role since relationships are institutionalized and supported by political theses and dogmas; in political parties, the wish for power appears to be the main motivation of their members. These items, however, are not mutually exclusive; they are all merging at every step of the leaders' evolution. This explains why this work is built around a dual sociological and psychological - issue while combining the objective analysis of the socio-political aspect and the integration of the agents' subjectivity. This study is based on the clinical approach applied in human sciences research within the framework of clinical sociology, and uses the "life story" method, which allows scientists co apprehend one aspect of the unionist world "from the inside" - usually ignored by most researchers - i. E. The subjective world, studied here in its permanent and simultaneous relation to the social facts.