La population de la moselle 1815-1914

par Pierre Brasme

Thèse de doctorat en Histoire

Sous la direction de Alfred Wahl.

Soutenue en 1997

à Metz .

    mots clés mots clés


  • Résumé

    De 1815 a 1914, la moselle connait une profonde mutation demographique: le passage du peuplement rural au peuplement industriel. Passe l'apogee rural des annees 1830-1840, les campagnes commencent a se depeupler, davantage au profit de l'etranger (etats-unis et algerie) et de paris que du departement lui-meme. Apres l'annexion a l'allemagne, ce depeuplement rural se poursuit, mais les flux migratoires se modifient: l'option pour la nationalite francaise et l'emigration font perdre a la moselle plusieurs dizaines de milliers d'habitants, departs compenses par l'immigration civile allemande et l'implantation d'une forte garnison. A la fin du 19e siecle des milliers d'ouvriers italiens s'installent dans les regions industrielles de l'ouest mosellan. Ces divers mouvements de population desequilibrent la repartition spatiale de la population, au profit d'une <<moselle peripherique>> industrielle, dense et dynamique et au detriment d'une <<moselle mediane>> rurale qui continue a se vider de ses habitants. Au point de vue des structures demographiques, la moselle se caracterise par une nette difference de fecondite entre la moselle germanophone et la moselle francophone. La frontiere linguistique qui traverse le departement de thionville a sarrebourg se revele etre une <<frontiere demographique>>: dans les regions de langue allemande la fecondite est elevee, et encore largement naturelle; au contraire, dans les regions de langue francaise, le comportement conjugal est nettement plus malthusien. La moselle presente ainsi une fecondite <<lotharingienne>>, ecartelee entre une demographique de type <<germanique>> et une demographie plus proche de celle de la france. Cette dualite rejoint et confirme la diversite depuis longtemps percue par les historiens, les sociologues et les geographes de part et d'autre de la frontiere des langues.

  • Titre traduit

    The population of moselle from 1815 to 1914


  • Résumé

    Between 1815 and 1914, a deep demographic change occured in moselle: people began to leave the country to live in industrial areas. After reaching a peak in the 1830's, the rural population started decreasing, more to the benefit of foreign countries (the states and algeria) and paris than to the <<departement>> itself. After the annexation of moselle to germany, this depopulation of the country went on, but migratory movements changed: the possibility for people to choose the french nationality as well as emigration caused to moselle the loss of several tens of thousands inhabitants, whose departure was compensated however by the immigration of german people and the implantation of a strong garrison. At the end of the century, thousands of italian workers settled in the industrial areas of western moselle. These various movements of the population unbalanced the spatial repartition of the population in favour of a peripheral industrial part of moselle which was dense and dynamic, but to the detriment of a median rural part of moselle, which went on losing its inhabitants. As far as demographic structures were concerned, moselle was characterised by a big difference in fecundity between the german-speaking part of moselle and the french-speaking part. The language border which crossed the <<departement>> between thionville and sarrebourg was actually a <<demographic border>>: in german-speaking areas the rate of fecundity was high and still largely natural; on the contrary, in french-speaking areas, conjugal behaviour was clearly more malthusian. That is why, in moselle, a type of "lotharingian", (that is, peculiar to lorraine) fecundity existed, torn between a german-like demography and a demography that was closer to that found in france. This duality rejoins and confirms the diversity which historians, sociologists and geographers have perceived for a long time on either side of the language border.

Consulter en bibliothèque

La version de soutenance existe sous forme papier

Informations

  • Détails : 2 vol., 747 p.
  • Notes : Publication autorisée par le jury
  • Annexes : 308 ref.

Où se trouve cette thèse ?