Thèse de doctorat en Lettres
Sous la direction de Annie Piolat.
Soutenue en 1997
à Aix-Marseille 1 , en partenariat avec Université de Provence. Faculté des lettres et sciences humaines (autre partenaire) .
Pas de résumé disponible.
The aim of this work was to study how young writers aged 10 to 13 years justify and argue contradictory view points. Most research considers that justification and argumentation involve the same language activity. It is further considered that the activity to generate arguments does not appear until the age of 13 years (or later). The writers must generate pro and contra arguments and include the "dialogic dimension" of the argumentation within the formal organization of the text. It was hypothesized that this ability appears at age 10. To have this ability children have to have content knowledge, to support any assertion and a textual schema, to organize pro and contra arguments. This structure called textual schema is a discourse knowledge. This schema constitutes a necessary cognitive tool to guide text processing. Furthermore, the ability to generate an argument would be influenced by contextual factors such as domain familiarity, reference to consensual opinions regarding the activity, and the point of view defended. The impact of these factors and their interaction in generating justifications and arguments was analyzed. The two experiments conducted allowed to identify contexts of production favorable these activities. The main results are: experiment 1: justification of contradictory views subjects of 10 to 13 years were able to justify a point of view as well as its contrary. However, the production of supporting arguments increases when they have to defend a consensual position and unfamiliar activities (e. G. ,travelling is good for people because. . . ). This facilatcilitating effect is observed in the number and as well as in the content of arguments. Experiment 2: argumentation for contradictory views with respect to argumentative ability, the most favorable context is that involving defense of opinions contrary to the consensual opinion and familiar activites (e. G. , so, it would be good for me to not eat candies. . . ). Under these conditions, children generate pro and contra arguments but also organized the arguments using argumentative schema that systematically combine each pro argument with its contra arguments. Thus, 10 years old children performed as well as those of 13 years old. In conclusion, the written production of justifications and argumentations depends on combined use of various knowledge and on contexts of production. So, there are no