L'eglise protestante et la question scolaire en prusse au dix-neuvieme siecle

par GERTRUD ZUBER HAHNE

Thèse de doctorat en Études germaniques

Sous la direction de Gilbert Krebs.

Soutenue en 1987

à Paris 3 .

    mots clés mots clés


  • Résumé

    Un chapitre historique rappelle la situation singuliere de la prusse ou un prince reforme gouverne une eglise lutherienne. L'evolution entre la reforme et le dix-neuvieme siecle conduit progressivement l'eglise et l'ecole sous la tutelle de l'etat (code general de prusse en 1974). Le debut du dix-neuvieme siecle est marque aussi bien pour l'ecole que pour l'eglise protestante par un renouveau. Les nouveaux partis conservateur et liberal s'opposent sur des, concepts d'ecole differents. L'eglise protestante est elle-meme divisee en plusieurs partis, dont les positions respectives sur la question scolaire sont examinees a partir d'articles tires des principaux journaux protestants. Cette etude revele un consensus sur le maintien du statut confessionnel, mais de sensibles nuances sur la maniere d'exprimer la finalite chretienne et d'exercer l'inspection. Nos recherches sont centrees sur les affrontements entre les liberaux et le ministre des cultes muhler, representant de l'orthodoxie protestante, etudies a partir de debats parlementaires pour la periode 1862 a 1872. La these d'un kulturkampf protestant est emise. Des 1862, le parti du progres s'oppose a la politique conservarice du ministre muhler et reclame une loi generale sur l'enseignement abrogeant l'esprit confessionnaliste des "reglements de stiehl". En 1868, les liberaux lancent une veritable offensive contre le "systeme muhler". Bismarck attendra la fin de la guerre franco-allemande pour prendre une part active a ces debats. Son souci primordial devient la consolidation du reich. Dans ce cadre, il doit regler le probleme general des relations entre l'etat et l'eglise : sa politique anticatholique vise egalement l'orthodoxie protestante qui cherche a sauvergarder son influence politique. En 1871, il contraint son ministre a elaborer une loi speciale mettant en cause l'inspection locale par le clerge, puis il obtient en janvier 1872 sa demission. Cet episode marque la rupture entre bismarck et ses anciens amis conservateurs. Bismarck franchit un nouveau pas sur la voie difficile de la secularisation de l'etat au dix-neuvieme siecle.


  • Résumé

    An historical chapter recalls the special situation of prussia where a protestant calvinist prince governed a lutherian church. The various developments from the reformation through to the nineteenth century led progressively to state supervision of both the church and the schools (general code of prussia, 1794). The early nineteenth century was a period of revival for both the schools and the protestant church. The newly-founded conservative and liberal parties developed different ideas on education and clashed over the schools question. The protestant church itself was divided into different factions and their respective positions are examined with the help of articles taken from the main protestant newspapers. This study reveals a consensus in favour of maintaining the denominational status of schools, but with minor- though important-differences concerning inspection and the ways of expressing the christian finality of education. Our research focuses on the confrontation (1862-72) between the liberals and the government minister responsible for education and for church affairs, muhler, an orthodox protestant. The thesis of a "protestant kulturkampi" is proposed. From 1862 onwards the progressive party opposed muhler's conservative policies and called for a general law on education which would repeal the confessional spirit of the "stiehl rules". They pressed for more open minded schools. The liberals launched a determined campaign against the muhler system in 1868. Bismarck waited until after the franco-prussian war before participating actively in the debate. His main preoccupation was then to consolidate the reich and the catholic church was seen as the most dangerous apponent. He also had to settle the general question of state-church relations. His anti-catholic policy had similar effect on the orthodox protestants who were trying to preserve their political influence. From autumn 1871 onwards he forced his minister to prepare a special law enabling local inspection to be carried out either by civil servants or by the clergy. Finally muhler was for- ced to resign in january 1872. Although bismarck had achieved his aims, this episode had forced him to break with his former conservative friends who still supported

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